如何選擇最適合自己的房貸方案

辦理銀行房貸時,你最在乎的是,哪家銀行的貸款利率最低嗎?其實,利率高低並不是唯一的考量!貸款期間長短、每月繳款負擔、要不要寬限期、自己的投資理財能力,都是需要考量的。而如果選對了房貸方案,不僅可以輕鬆繳款,還可能讓你多賺錢。最好遵守「335原則」:準備3成自備款,每月房貸支出不超過家庭總收入的3分之1,房屋總價不超過家庭年收入的5倍。不但輕鬆成家,也能讓資金運用更充裕。

如何選擇最適合自己的房貸方案

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辦理銀行房貸時,你最在乎的是,哪家銀行的貸款利率最低嗎?其實,利率高低並不是唯一的考量!貸款期間長短、每月繳款負擔、要不要寬限期、自己的投資理財能力,都是需要考量的。而如果選對了房貸方案,不僅可以輕鬆繳款,還可能讓你多賺錢。

銀行房貸條件包含了貸款成數(貸款金額)、利息、寬限期、貸款年限,如何選擇最適合自己的銀行房貸方案,甚至結合儲蓄、保險等其他理財工具,為自己省下利息並增加保障,真的是一門大學問。以下步驟將協助你挑選最適合自己的房貸方案:

  • Step1 設定自己適合的利率:
    由於利息條件直接影響購屋成本,因此,申請前多比較各銀行的房貸利率是絕對必要的,因為差一碼(0.25%) 的利息,長期下來也是相當可觀喔!依照「利率是否浮動」的標準,大致上可分為以下三種銀行房貸方案:

房貸類型 

說明

指數型房貸

指數型房貸利率=定儲利率+加碼利率。利率隨著市場利率變動而機動調整,雖然當利率調升時,此一指標利率也會隨之上揚,但由於加碼利率明確,使得利率定價公平而透明。如果採用指數型房貸,可以選擇季調,由於升息時間會比月調慢,可以達到省息的效果。
適合:有規律薪水的上班族

固定型房貸

利率固定,不受利率上漲、下跌的影響。一般而言,固定型房貸一開始的利息通常較指數型房貸高,但因利率固定不變,在目前央行升息不斷的情形下,可避免升息風險。由於每月繳款金額固定,每月支出不會因為利率波動而臨時更動,可以妥善安排家庭財務分配,確保家庭生活品質。
適合:預算有限且準備長期還款的首購族、雙薪家庭和預期未來利率可能走升的人

組合型房貸

結合固定與機動利率,可自由搭配金額比重。其中固定利率的部分完全不受市場利率波動影響,在利率上揚時,固定利率的部分可以鎖住利息負擔,若利率反向走跌,機動式利率的部分則可反映市場利率走勢,讓客戶有效掌握雙重優勢。
適合:想省息又想規避升息風險的人

除了「利率是否浮動」外,依照「利率結構」,還可分為以下幾種房貸方案:

房貸類型 

說明

一段式房貸

貸款期間的利率均用相同計算方式計息,通常搭配「指數型房貸」使用,在20-30年的貸款期限內,均以定儲利率加上固定百分比的利率。一段式利率通常在每個月支付的貸款金額差異不大,僅隨市場利率微幅波動,前兩年的利率雖較高,但長期來看利息較優惠。
適合:貸款初期付款輕鬆及還款能力佳的人

二、三段式利率

將還款期間分做二或三段,採取不同的利率計息。如果是二段式,第一段通常為前2年,第二段為為第3年起。如果是三段式,第一段通常為前6個月,第二段為第7∼24個月,第三段則為第3年起。通常二、三段式的利率結構,前2年利率通常低於一段式利率,但第3年起利通常會支付較高的本息負擔。
適合:希望前兩年利息負擔較輕的人

利率遞減型房貸

一種依據顧客繳息情形提供利率回饋的房貸產品。房貸利率依指數型房貸計息,若顧客每月按時繳息,利率即享有減碼優惠。
適合:雙薪家庭者、有固定還款來源者,或是對利率敏感度較高的上班族或避險族等
  • Step2 選擇自己適合的方案:
    房貸產品越來越多元化,除了傳統的房屋買賣價金貸款外,有些銀行推出的房貸方案結合了理財、儲蓄、保險等工具,增加貸款靈活的運用,加速房貸清償時間、減少利息支出。以下為各種常見貸款方案,可視自己的需求進一步詢問銀行喔!

房貸類型 

說明

理財型房貸
(循環動用型房貸)

一般房貸還款後的本金部分不能再動用,而理財型房貸的還款本金(包括每月攤還之本金及提前部分還款之本金)會轉換為循環額度,雖利率較一般房貸略高,但可隨時動用、隨借隨還按日計息,不動用不計息,活化不動產,擁有更多資金運用的彈性。
適合:有理財規劃、短期投資、房屋修繕及備用金需求者,或者中小型企業人士

抵利型房貸

以存款來折抵房貸本金,以減少利息支出,達到降低每月攤還金額或縮短還款年限的效果。如果臨時面臨資金需求,還是可以動用該筆存款。
適合:有存款,但希望保留資金運用彈性,不想提前還款,但希望降低房貸負擔者

保險型房貸

與保險結合的房貸產品,保費通常較一般定期壽險為低,一般分為「遞減型」與「平準型」兩種,遞減型是依據房貸的還款金額,讓保額逐步遞減,平準型則是在保障期間內都維持相同保額。其優點在於,若承貸戶意外身故,則等同於房貸金額的保險理賠金,可優先償還房貸,避免不動產因無法按時繳交本息,房子遭法拍的風險。一旦理賠金償還房貸款後的餘額,還可給付給受益人,讓生活更有保障。若消費者提前償還房貸,也可選擇繼續享有保障或依相關條款退保領取解約金。
適合:身為家中經濟主要來源者

保證保險型房貸

當房貸核貸金額不敷需求時,利用「額外投保」的方式,增加貸款金額。房貸戶可透過保險取得不足的金額,而銀行業者也可透過保證保險,將風險轉嫁給保險公司。
適合:自備款不足或信用條件不足者

  • Step3 規畫房貸年限 & 決定房貸還款方式:
    一般房屋貸款年限分為20年(較常見)或30年,至於一般房貸還款方式,則可分為以下兩種:

本息平均攤還:
在利率不變的條件下,每月攤還本金與利息的總合固定,對於還款預算較易掌握。適合固定薪水、每月預算固定的上班族,是目前市面上較常見的還款方式。

本金平均攤還:
每月攤還之本金固定,但每月償付之利息則逐月遞減,由於期初還款金額較多,因此可節省較多的利息支出。適合手邊有現金較多的民眾或每月收入遠大於支出者。

首次購屋者為避免剛買屋造成負擔過大,可以向銀行申請寬限期1-2年,也就是說這1-2年間只要交利息,不需攤還本金。雖然可降低購屋初期的壓力,但也必須衡量自己寬限期後每月本利攤還的負擔是否過大喔!每月繳交金額可以透過【簡易貸款試算】試算。

  • Step4 選擇銀行:
    瞭解了上述關於利息與各類房貸工具後,接下來就要挑選銀行了!為了方便買方針對各銀行的房貸方案進行比較,鉅軒代書小編將【銀行優惠房貸】、【壽險優惠房貸】整理於房貸試算工具中。挑選房貸銀行以服務熱忱、重視行員專業訓練、替客戶著想的優質銀行為先。此外,提醒你,各家銀行的房貸方案雖有差異,但實際核貸的內容還是依個人條件與房屋鑑價而定喔!建議可與2-3家銀行房貸業務詢問、討論,再依各業務提供的內容多方比較再做決定喔!
  • Step5 善用政府優惠方案減輕利息壓力:

除了銀行的房貸外,為了協助國民購屋,政府不定期也會提供優惠房貸方案。如果你符合青年首購條件或中低收入、弱勢家庭,不妨多善用政府優惠方案,減輕利息壓力。申辦房貸前可參考【政府優惠房貸】內容。


房貸怎麼省錢-把握5大原則
不動產變動產
房奴擺脫窮到只剩房的窘日子

時下許多年輕人總是望屋興嘆,加上薪水不漲、房價不跌,買房應是遙遙無期。鉅軒房地產總經理提供兩大方向,「及早規劃」、「把握335原則」,建議青年族群先從交通動線上的區域入手,先求有再求好。

藉由以上五個步驟,就能逐項評估選擇最適合自己的房貸方案。此外,由於未來利率波動的可能性較大,提醒你,在申請貸款時,務必考量自身的還款能力,尤其是首購族,最好遵守「335原則」:準備3成自備款,每月房貸支出不超過家庭總收入的3分之1,房屋總價不超過家庭年收入的5倍不但輕鬆成家,也能讓資金運用更充裕。如果貸款後,資金週轉真的出現問題,也不要輕易違約,最好趕快去跟銀行協調,例如延長還款期限,以減輕每月繳款負擔,避免房貸繳不出來、房屋被法拍的風險喔!


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CORAL Position Statement- International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Releases Special Report on the Impacts of Global Warming of 1.5° C Background: On October 8th, the IPCC issued its special report on the impacts of global climate change on nature and society. Specifically, the IPCC examined the results of warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels in the context of the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty. The report can be found at http://www.ipcc.ch/report/sr15/. The report paints a grim picture of the consequences of climate change if the earth’s temperature rises by even 0.5°C and further states that rising temperatures will result in food shortages, more wildfires, and—of particular interest to us at the Coral Reef Alliance (CORAL)—a mass die-off of coral reefs as soon as 2040. Additionally, the report points out that the effects of climate change will not be disbursed uniformly across the globe. Rising temperatures will have a disproportionate impact on the poor as well as developing and island nations. CORAL works closely with many such communities around the world to implement solutions that are win-wins for both reefs and people. Many media outlets have covered the release of this report, and many have focused on the predictions of devastating effects to coral reefs. Some of the reports have shared inaccurate data about the current state of coral reefs and very few media outlets have publicized the work being done by CORAL and countless other conservation organizations around the world to save coral reefs. Statement from Madhavi Colton, Ph.D., Program Director of the Coral Reef Alliance (CORAL): The IPCC’s special report is an urgent wake-up call for action. To save coral reefs, we must act on two fronts: we must swiftly and drastically lower greenhouse emissions while simultaneously effectively reducing local stresses to reefs, such as from land-based sources of pollution and overfishing. Without effective action on both fronts in the next 20 years, we could be facing a world without functional coral reefs. CORAL has developed innovative, scientific solutions to meet this challenge. The effects of losing an entire ecosystem would be devastating. A quarter of all marine life depends on coral reefs, and over 500 million people around the world rely on coral reefs for food security, economic well-being, and cultural identity. Goods and services—like tourism and fishing—derived from coral reefs have an estimated value of US$375 billion a year. Coral reefs are also critical for protecting coastal communities from wave action, erosion, and tropical storms. The world needs coral reefs, and decisive action will help ensure that we do not face a future without them. Many coral reefs around the globe are in a state of decline. Some recent reports in the media have stated that we have lost 50 percent of the world’s reefs already. The truth is more complicated. The combination of rising ocean temperatures and local reef threats has resulted in the loss of 50 percent of reef-building corals (as opposed to coral reefs) over the past 30 years and placed an estimated one-third of reef-building corals at risk of extinction. The good news is that there is hope for corals and coral reefs. A growing body of scientific research shows that corals and their algal symbionts can adapt to warming oceans, but little is known about whether corals can adapt fast enough to keep up with the pace of climate change. Without this crucial information, pessimism can prevail, undermining motivation to implement effective conservation actions and governmental policies. CORAL is developing a new, scalable solution to meet the crisis facing our reefs, as described in the IPCC report, that will fill this knowledge gap. In partnership with world-class researchers, we are spearheading a multidisciplinary research project that is improving our understanding of how corals evolve in response to rising temperatures. We are using this scientific information to develop regional-scale conservation plans that we are implementing in collaboration with local communities in Fiji, Honduras, Indonesia and Hawai‘i. Our scientific research shows that the best way to give corals a fighting chance is by facilitating the natural process of evolutionary rescue. Evolutionary rescue happens when a population in decline is able to survive because individuals that are naturally better suited to deal with new conditions breed to regrow the population. In essence, evolution rescues the population before it goes extinct. We have used our scientific research to define the attributes of networks that increase the probability of evolutionary rescue. We call these networks “Adaptive Reefscapes”. An Adaptive Reefscape is a network of healthy reefs that is diverse, connected, and large.  To learn more about Adaptive Reefscapes go to: https://coral.org/adapt/. A key element of Adaptive Reefscapes is that they are based on portfolio theory—the idea that investing in a diverse range of options for the future increases the chances for success. This contrasts with other approaches that use inherently uncertain forecasts to focus conservation efforts on particular geographic locations and/or species. Such strategies are intrinsically risky. Adaptive Reefscapes also contrasts with approaches that are over-reliant on technology which, given the short window of time and resource constraints, are unlikely to achieve meaningful results for reefs at a global scale. Given the rapid pace of climate change and its drastic effects, we can no longer rely on standard approaches to conservation that assume we know what the future will bring or that strive to return systems to the way they once were. We need innovative solutions that instead embrace the idea of change and harness evolutionary power. To address the crisis we face, we need a solution that can scale globally in a relatively short period and with limited resources. At CORAL, we have that solution. Find out how you can get involved and learn more at www.coral.org. [caption id="attachment_1008" align="alignnone" width="1000"] A yellow clownfish (Amphiprion sandaracinos) peeks out from within a Merten's carpet sea anenome (Stichodactyla mertensii) in Indonesia. Photo by: Jeff Yonover[/caption] About Dr. Madhavi Colton: As CORAL’s Program Director, Dr. Madhavi Colton oversees an international portfolio of community-driven conservation programs that are addressing local threats to reefs, including over-fishing, poor water quality, sedimentation, and habitat destruction. Madhavi is also spearheading new scientific research into how ecosystems adapt to the effects of anthropogenic climate change and is applying this knowledge to develop innovative approaches to coral conservation around the world. Her expertise lies in building partnerships between academic researchers, conservation organizations, governments and local communities to implement durable solutions to conservation. She has worked in California, Hawai‘i, the Mesoamerican region, Indonesia, Fiji and Australia. Dr. Colton has a Ph.D. in Marine Ecology from the University of Melbourne, Australia. About the Coral Reef Alliance (CORAL) Headquartered in Oakland, California with field offices in Hawai‘i, Fiji, Indonesia and Honduras, CORAL unites communities to save coral reefs. Working with local people, communities, and partners—from fishermen and government leaders to divers to scientists—CORAL protects one of our most valuable and threatened ecosystems. International teams design long-term and lasting conservation programs that reduce local threats to coral reefs and are replicated across the globe. For more information about CORAL or to donate to protect coral reefs, visit www.coral.org. FILED UNDER: PRESS RELEASES TAGGED WITH: CLIMATE CHANGE, CORAL,CORAL REEFS, INTERNATIONAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE, IPCC REPORT Working with people around the world—from fishermen to government leaders, divers to scientists, Californians to Fijians—the Coral Reef Alliance protects our most valuable and threatened ecosystem. We lead holistic conservation programs that improve coral reef health and resilience and are replicated across the globe.