台北地政局教你解讀何謂買屋實坪?虛坪?

實坪/虛坪-1

不動產買賣交易是雙方物的交換,有物有權有交易的價值,但如何等價等值的交換卻是難題,不動產買賣爭議與糾發通常發生在於不公平與不對等價值的互易。預售屋買賣制度是台灣特有的不動產交易型態,它的產生要從民國60年第一家代銷公司7天即完銷的傳奇說起,它打開了台灣預售屋制度近50年的發展。這樣的銷售制度是一個經濟社會演化下的產物,當時的時空背景市場資金短缺,預售屋消費者可以分期付款、建設公司隨著工程進度進帳,所以有了這個分期履約的交易制度,它隨著經濟蓬勃興起,但這幾十年來也出現很多問題,包括不少因建商財務危機而成為爛尾樓,契約爭議或繳了自備款、工程款捲款的狀況,還有近10年以來一直爭論不休的實坪與虛坪的議題,買屋應該在乎的是登記面積?還是使用面積效益?在法規變來變去之下,消費者還是應該在訂約前清楚了解自己買的不動產標的內容是什麼,以確保交易權益。

專有、共有的使用權益大不同

按公寓大廈管理條例第3條所定義,公寓大廈是指得區分為數部分之建物及其基地,而該建物區分所有後可各別有其專有部分,並按專有應有部分之權利,分享共用部分,全區共同事務則應召集區分所有權人會議決議。依照規定建物原則上專有專用,例外可約定共用;而共有則共用,例外可約定專用。

一、專有專用

專有部分分別為主建物和附屬建物(例如雨遮、屋簷露台、陽台),原則就專用;例外約定共用情形例如有一 棟大廈臨馬路邊,主建物的外牆可刊登廣告,這個外牆的使用就必須經過該棟建物所有權人共同同意方可使用。

二、共有共用

共有部分分別為法定共用(例如主樑柱、承重牆、樓地板、屋頂…)和非法定共用(例如地下室空間及梯間),原則就共用,共有約定專用只能在非法定共用部分,且必須共有人會議決議並立於規定,例如地下室停車位的使用。

圖1:專有部分、共有部分的情形

實坪是什麼?

目前法規針對實坪並沒有定義,有人認為是實際登記面積,有人認為是實際具有使用效益的坪數,但不管如何,擁有一間屋子它應該具有以下二種必要的部分:

公寓大廈管理條例實坪/虛坪-2

一、專有部分

公寓大廈管理條例所稱建築物專有部分主要是來自於所有權的概念,所有權又稱完全物權,是指民法上,權利人對標的物可以直接全面排他性支配特定物的物權,這在區分所有權的大樓型態上更具意義。因此,不論是主建物還是附屬建物的使用,都是具有專有專用的本質,具「實際使用效益」並不會有疑義,而市場所爭議討論之實坪效益,是附屬建物使用價值低卻與主建物等價計算,在成屋一屋總價買賣當然並不會有這種疑慮,但在預售屋交易上蓋多少賣多少,就得斤斤計較。另外一個被爭議討論的議題,是使用效益低的坪數登記,也就是登記法令對附屬建物登記不登記的規定變來變去(表1),在107年1月1日以後,最新的規定是屋簷、雨遮已不再登記。

表1:登記法令的變革

法令合併實坪/虛坪-3

二、必要設施 

 (一)主要結構

建築法第4條定義,所謂建築物,為定著於土地上或地面下具有頂蓋、樑柱或牆壁,供個人或公眾使用之構造物或雜項工作物。所以,應該很容易理解的是,一個房子得要有樑柱有四壁還要有頂才能稱為房屋,因此公寓大廈管理條例規定建物之共有部分中之主樑柱、承重牆、樓地板、屋頂屬法定共用,不得約定專用,既為法定共用之必要設施,即應該屬產權持有的一部分。

(二)必要公設

003年新北市蘆洲的「大囍市」社區發生火災,因為煙囪效應,火勢從一樓直接竄升到六樓屋頂,吞噬了13條人命,也因為這起事件,營建署在2005年修正「建築技術規則」,針對逃生梯、室內梯、戶外安全梯有新增規定,建商必須花更多的成本設置消防和逃生設施,自此之後,新建案公設比從30%增加到35%甚至40%,但具公安性質的公設,是必要的設施,也應該屬產權持有的一部分。

虛坪在哪裏?

相對於前面實際使用效益的坪數整理分析,虛坪就能比較清楚的做以下的說明:

一、非必要設施

非必要設施就是使用價值低可有可無,非必要設施建築結果,是工程造價增加、建築設計費用增加、主要面積增加及房屋稅增加,大致可以過度設計、重覆計算及不計容積來分述:

    (一)過度設計

現代人們對建物的要求已不在只是遮風避雨單純居住功能的需求,隨著生活品質的提升,它不斷反應在建築美學的設計上,逐漸展現出所謂城市美學的新態度,但有時它已不只是造型好看,而是在某種程度上過度的設計,例如下列建築物的雨遮、屋簷設計等案例(圖2):  

實坪/虛坪-4

圖2:雨遮過度設計的情形

    (二)不計容積

依建築技術規則等相關法規規定,部分建築項目可以不計容積,例如有1.每層樓樓地板面積12.5%以下,深度2公尺以內的陽台,每層陽台面積不足8平方公尺,可以做到8平方公尺。2.容積率15%的設備空間。(只要請照時寫設備空間即可,與使用無關)3.深度1公尺以內的雨遮及露台。4.最上面的樓層以屋頂突出物申請,面積的1/8或25平方公尺,屋突可蓋2層樓(6公尺高),若設有電梯該高度應小於9公尺。5.樓當停車空間,可不計容積,每個車位可扣除40平方公尺的容積。正面來說,善用容積與挑高設計可以增加建築空間,但另一方面而言,雖不計入容積卻同時增加總樓地板面積,也就是說工程造價會增加,建築師設計費用也相對增加,將來產權登記主建物坪數會增加,房屋稅也會增加。

        案例1:屋頂突出物的增設

建商將頂樓規劃為私人花園,並建置頂樓花園的樓梯專屬最高層住戶使用,為設置樓梯而增加的屋頂突出物面積,不計容積但會納入建物的樓地板面積計算。(圖3)

         案例2:設備空間的增設

建商以地上層設備空間的設計不計容積,所以規劃機房空間,增加銷售玶數。(圖4)

實坪/虛坪-5

圖3: 屋頂突出物的增設

圖4:設備空間的增設

二、重覆計算

預售建案原本應該是蓋多少賣多少,講清楚說明白,雙方合意即可,但因為建築項目過多,各種計算內容複雜,一般民眾並不容易了解,契約即使有審閱也可以說真的是有看沒有懂,也因為這樣,少部分建商緃有訂明計算方式,但實則是在契約內容重覆計算,例如

       (一)梯間

玄關梯廳和出電梯後回到家的通道,屬於當層住戶分攤的小公(小公設),有時會當層每一戶都算一遍而不是分攤,等於重覆計算。(圖4)

       (二)停車位

標準停車位面積係依寬長2.5mx6m=15㎡(4.5坪)計算,當引發爭議的是預售時停車位係按「個」出售,價格視車位種類、位置而定。通常「車道」面積會分到車位內計算,由車位持有者共同分攤,因此車位登記坪數面積會從6、7坪到12~15都有。若車位登記面積只算車格4.5坪,車道就有可能被攤進公設比內計算,意即:車位坪數登記愈大,相對可降低公設比,對消費者較有利;若車位坪數小,公設比提高,但車位價格通常不會降低,民眾等於買了車位又多負擔公設價格,被扒了兩層皮。(圖5) 

實坪/虛坪-6

圖4:梯間

圖5:停車位

購屋成本番外篇   

除了實坪、虛坪以外,還有一種購屋成本,那就是加值型設施的建築,加值型設施是希望增加生活機能、景觀變得更好,來提升生活品質,但相對的建築管理費會變多,居住成本當然也會增加,大致上按機能及景觀來分:

一、機能    

一般建案大多會訴求有運動設施、游泳池、視廰區、圖書室等各項生活機能,來增加賣象提高銷售,目前係以地下  室空間(包括停車位)及梯間的約定使用較常見)。

二、景觀

以法定空地來說,除了應有的開放空間、連通通道、防火間隔及防火巷等具消防安全不得約定為專用外,建商會在單純的空地上增加假山假水、花園庭園,來增加居住空間的舒適度,但基於使用者付費,負擔自然會增加。

實坪/虛坪-7

總結,一般不動產消費意識的認知是只要有物就有權,物權有登記則具交易價值,另外,再加上使用者付費的觀念,二者加乘更促使建商猛蓋非必要的附屬建物與公共設施。10年前監察院早已糾正行政機關放任建築法規不斷放寬不計入容積項目,而地政法規又予以測量登記,造成市場交易的亂象,時至今日,再綜觀市場現況,核心問題始終存在。生意人想的是成本利潤有蓋就要算錢,消費者只能來來回回撥撥算盤,實坪、虛坪看清楚,再決定是否決定買屋,並找信譽良好的業者或參考地政局網的不動產交易安全專區查詢相關資訊,以免後悔上當影響交易權益。


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CORAL Position Statement- International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Releases Special Report on the Impacts of Global Warming of 1.5° C Background: On October 8th, the IPCC issued its special report on the impacts of global climate change on nature and society. Specifically, the IPCC examined the results of warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels in the context of the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty. The report can be found at http://www.ipcc.ch/report/sr15/. The report paints a grim picture of the consequences of climate change if the earth’s temperature rises by even 0.5°C and further states that rising temperatures will result in food shortages, more wildfires, and—of particular interest to us at the Coral Reef Alliance (CORAL)—a mass die-off of coral reefs as soon as 2040. Additionally, the report points out that the effects of climate change will not be disbursed uniformly across the globe. Rising temperatures will have a disproportionate impact on the poor as well as developing and island nations. CORAL works closely with many such communities around the world to implement solutions that are win-wins for both reefs and people. Many media outlets have covered the release of this report, and many have focused on the predictions of devastating effects to coral reefs. Some of the reports have shared inaccurate data about the current state of coral reefs and very few media outlets have publicized the work being done by CORAL and countless other conservation organizations around the world to save coral reefs. Statement from Madhavi Colton, Ph.D., Program Director of the Coral Reef Alliance (CORAL): The IPCC’s special report is an urgent wake-up call for action. To save coral reefs, we must act on two fronts: we must swiftly and drastically lower greenhouse emissions while simultaneously effectively reducing local stresses to reefs, such as from land-based sources of pollution and overfishing. Without effective action on both fronts in the next 20 years, we could be facing a world without functional coral reefs. CORAL has developed innovative, scientific solutions to meet this challenge. The effects of losing an entire ecosystem would be devastating. A quarter of all marine life depends on coral reefs, and over 500 million people around the world rely on coral reefs for food security, economic well-being, and cultural identity. Goods and services—like tourism and fishing—derived from coral reefs have an estimated value of US$375 billion a year. Coral reefs are also critical for protecting coastal communities from wave action, erosion, and tropical storms. The world needs coral reefs, and decisive action will help ensure that we do not face a future without them. Many coral reefs around the globe are in a state of decline. Some recent reports in the media have stated that we have lost 50 percent of the world’s reefs already. The truth is more complicated. The combination of rising ocean temperatures and local reef threats has resulted in the loss of 50 percent of reef-building corals (as opposed to coral reefs) over the past 30 years and placed an estimated one-third of reef-building corals at risk of extinction. The good news is that there is hope for corals and coral reefs. A growing body of scientific research shows that corals and their algal symbionts can adapt to warming oceans, but little is known about whether corals can adapt fast enough to keep up with the pace of climate change. Without this crucial information, pessimism can prevail, undermining motivation to implement effective conservation actions and governmental policies. CORAL is developing a new, scalable solution to meet the crisis facing our reefs, as described in the IPCC report, that will fill this knowledge gap. In partnership with world-class researchers, we are spearheading a multidisciplinary research project that is improving our understanding of how corals evolve in response to rising temperatures. We are using this scientific information to develop regional-scale conservation plans that we are implementing in collaboration with local communities in Fiji, Honduras, Indonesia and Hawai‘i. Our scientific research shows that the best way to give corals a fighting chance is by facilitating the natural process of evolutionary rescue. Evolutionary rescue happens when a population in decline is able to survive because individuals that are naturally better suited to deal with new conditions breed to regrow the population. In essence, evolution rescues the population before it goes extinct. We have used our scientific research to define the attributes of networks that increase the probability of evolutionary rescue. We call these networks “Adaptive Reefscapes”. An Adaptive Reefscape is a network of healthy reefs that is diverse, connected, and large.  To learn more about Adaptive Reefscapes go to: https://coral.org/adapt/. A key element of Adaptive Reefscapes is that they are based on portfolio theory—the idea that investing in a diverse range of options for the future increases the chances for success. This contrasts with other approaches that use inherently uncertain forecasts to focus conservation efforts on particular geographic locations and/or species. Such strategies are intrinsically risky. Adaptive Reefscapes also contrasts with approaches that are over-reliant on technology which, given the short window of time and resource constraints, are unlikely to achieve meaningful results for reefs at a global scale. Given the rapid pace of climate change and its drastic effects, we can no longer rely on standard approaches to conservation that assume we know what the future will bring or that strive to return systems to the way they once were. We need innovative solutions that instead embrace the idea of change and harness evolutionary power. To address the crisis we face, we need a solution that can scale globally in a relatively short period and with limited resources. At CORAL, we have that solution. Find out how you can get involved and learn more at www.coral.org. [caption id="attachment_1008" align="alignnone" width="1000"] A yellow clownfish (Amphiprion sandaracinos) peeks out from within a Merten's carpet sea anenome (Stichodactyla mertensii) in Indonesia. Photo by: Jeff Yonover[/caption] About Dr. Madhavi Colton: As CORAL’s Program Director, Dr. Madhavi Colton oversees an international portfolio of community-driven conservation programs that are addressing local threats to reefs, including over-fishing, poor water quality, sedimentation, and habitat destruction. Madhavi is also spearheading new scientific research into how ecosystems adapt to the effects of anthropogenic climate change and is applying this knowledge to develop innovative approaches to coral conservation around the world. Her expertise lies in building partnerships between academic researchers, conservation organizations, governments and local communities to implement durable solutions to conservation. She has worked in California, Hawai‘i, the Mesoamerican region, Indonesia, Fiji and Australia. Dr. Colton has a Ph.D. in Marine Ecology from the University of Melbourne, Australia. About the Coral Reef Alliance (CORAL) Headquartered in Oakland, California with field offices in Hawai‘i, Fiji, Indonesia and Honduras, CORAL unites communities to save coral reefs. Working with local people, communities, and partners—from fishermen and government leaders to divers to scientists—CORAL protects one of our most valuable and threatened ecosystems. International teams design long-term and lasting conservation programs that reduce local threats to coral reefs and are replicated across the globe. For more information about CORAL or to donate to protect coral reefs, visit www.coral.org. FILED UNDER: PRESS RELEASES TAGGED WITH: CLIMATE CHANGE, CORAL,CORAL REEFS, INTERNATIONAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE, IPCC REPORT Working with people around the world—from fishermen to government leaders, divers to scientists, Californians to Fijians—the Coral Reef Alliance protects our most valuable and threatened ecosystem. We lead holistic conservation programs that improve coral reef health and resilience and are replicated across the globe.